Frequency analysis of stator currents of an induction motor controlled by direct torque control associated with a fuzzy flux estimator




direct torque control, fuzzy logic controller, fuzzy logic estimator, induction motor, spectral analysis, total harmonic distortion


Introduction. The best way to control the torque of an induction motor is conventional direct torque control (DTC); this control method is the most used approach in the industrial sector due to its many advantages. Its main advantages are its simplicity and its exclusive dependence on the stator resistance of the induction motor. However, the use of hysteresis comparators reduces its effectiveness, causing more torque ripple. Additionally, this results in variable operating frequency and limited frequency sampling, resulting in pseudo-random overshoot of the hysteresis band. Purpose. For these reasons, this article presents a new study aimed at confirming its shortcomings and improving the effectiveness of the control. Novelty. We propose to use fuzzy logic methods to estimate the two components of the stator flux. Methods. In traditional DTC the flux components are estimated from an equation relating the stator resistance to the stator voltage and current. In the proposed method, only stator currents and voltages are used for this evaluation, which eliminates the dependence of DTC on stator resistance. The aim of this proposal is to make DTC robust to parametric changes. Results. General harmonic distortions, rotational speed of the induction motor, electromagnetic moment, magnetic flux and stator currents are analyzed. Practical value. With this proposed technique, validated in Simulink/MATLAB, several improvements in motor behavior and control are endorsed: torque fluctuations are reduced, overshoot is completely eliminated, and total harmonic distortion is significantly reduced by 48.31 % for stator currents. This study also confirmed the robustness of DTC to changes in stator resistance.

Author Biographies

Y. A. Mabrouk, University of Laghouat

PhD Student, Electrotechnics Department, LEDMASD Laboratory

B. Mokhtari, University of Laghouat

Lecturer, Electrotechnics Department, LEDMASD Laboratory

T. Allaoui, University of Tiaret

Full Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, L2GEGI Laboratory


Malyar V.S., Malyar A.V., Andreishyn A.S. A method for calculating mechanical characteristics of induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2019, no. 2, pp. 9-13. doi:

Lallouani H., Saad B., Letfi B. DTC-SVM based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller of Double Stator Induction Machine fed by Six-Phase Inverter. International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 2019, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 48-57. doi:

Ben Slimene M. Performance analysis of six-phase induction machine-multilevel inverter with arbitrary displacement. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2020, no. 4, pp. 12-16. doi:

Fathy Abouzeid A., Guerrero J.M., Endemaño A., Muniategui I., Ortega D., Larrazabal I., Briz F. Control Strategies for Induction Motors in Railway Traction Applications. Energies, 2020, vol. 13, no. 3, art. no. 700. doi:

Fekik A., Denoun H., Azar A.T., Kamal N.A., Zaouia M., Benyahia N., Hamida M.L., Benamrouche N., Vaidyanathan S. Direct power control of three-phase PWM-rectifier with backstepping control. Backstepping Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems, 2021, pp. 215-234. doi:

El Ouanjli N., Derouich A., El Ghzizal A., Motahhir S., Chebabhi A., El Mourabit Y., Taoussi M. Modern improvement techniques of direct torque control for induction motor drives - a review. Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, 2019, vol. 4, no. 1, art. no. 11. doi:

Aktas M., Awaili K., Ehsani M., Arisoy A. Direct torque control versus indirect field-oriented control of induction motors for electric vehicle applications. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 2020, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1134-1143. doi:

Bounar N., Boulkroune A., Boudjema F., M'Saad M., Farza, M. Adaptive fuzzy vector control for a doubly-fed induction motor. Neurocomputing, 2015, vol. 151, pp. 756-769. doi:

El Ouanjli N., Taoussi M., Derouich A., Chebabhi A., El Ghzizal A., Bossoufi B. High performance direct torque control of doubly fed induction motor using fuzzy logic. Gazi University Journal of Science, 2018, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 532-542.

Takahashi I., Noguchi T. A New Quick-Response and High-Efficiency Control Strategy of an Induction Motor. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 1986, vol. IA-22, no. 5, pp. 820-827. doi:

Depenbrock M. Direct self-control (DSC) of inverter-fed induction machine. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 1988, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 420-429. doi:

Pragati A., Ganthia B.P., Panigrahi B.P. Genetic Algorithm Optimized Direct Torque Control of Mathematically Modeled Induction Motor Drive Using PI and Sliding Mode Controller. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 2021, vol. 707, pp. 351-366. doi:

Kamalapur G., Aspalli M.S. Direct torque control and dynamic performance of induction motor using fractional order fuzzy logic controller. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 2023, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 3805-3816. doi:

Khadar S., Kouzou A., Benguesmia H. Fuzzy Stator Resistance Estimator of Induction Motor fed by a Three Levels NPC Inverter Controlled by Direct Torque Control. 2018 International Conference on Applied Smart Systems (ICASS), 2018, pp. 1-7. doi:

Zidani F., Diallo D., Benbouzid M.E.H., Nait-Said R. Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor With Fuzzy Stator Resistance Adaptation. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2006, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 619-621. doi:

Djamila C., Yahia M. Direct Torque Control Strategies of Induction Machine: Comparative Studies. Direct Torque Control Strategies of Electrical Machines. IntechOpen. 2021. doi:

Agha Kashkooli M.R., Madani S.M., Lipo T.A. Improved Direct Torque Control for a DFIG under Symmetrical Voltage Dip With Transient Flux Damping. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2020, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 28-37. doi:

Kodumur Meesala R.E., Thippiripati V.K. An Improved Direct Torque Control of Three-Level Dual Inverter Fed Open-Ended Winding Induction Motor Drive Based on Modified Look-Up Table. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 2020, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 3906-3917. doi:

Dos Santos T.H., Goedtel A., Da Silva S.A.O., Suetake M. Scalar control of an induction motor using a neural sensorless technique. Electric Power Systems Research, 2014, vol. 108, pp. 322-330. doi:

Ikhe A., Pahariya Y. Voltage regulation using three phase electric spring by fuzzy logic controller. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2023, no. 4, pp. 14-18. doi:

Aib A., Khodja D.E., Chakroune S. Field programmable gate array hardware in the loop validation of fuzzy direct torque control for induction machine drive. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2023, no. 3, pp. 28-35. doi:

Maghfiroh H., Saputro J.S., Adriyanto F., Sujono A., Lambang R.L. Performance Evaluation of Fuzzy-PID in Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2021, vol. 1096, no. 1, art. no. 012071. doi:

Saifi R. Implementation of a new flux rotor based on model reference adaptive system for sensorless direct torque control modified for induction motor. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2023, no. 2, 37-42. doi:

Saidi A., Naceri F., Youb L., Cernat M., Guasch Pesquer L. Two Types of Fuzzy Logic Controllers for the Speed Control of the Doubly-Fed Induction Machine. Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2020, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 65-74. doi:

Derbane A., Tabbache B., Ahriche A. A fuzzy logic approach based direct torque control and five-leg voltage source inverter for electric vehicle powertrains. Revue Roumaine des Sciences Techniques Série Electrotechnique et Energétique, 2021, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 15-20.

Paranchuk Y.S., Paranchuk R.Y. Research of arc furnace electrical mode with a fuzzy control model. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2020, no. 4, pp. 30-36. doi:




How to Cite

Mabrouk, Y. A., Mokhtari, B., & Allaoui, T. (2023). Frequency analysis of stator currents of an induction motor controlled by direct torque control associated with a fuzzy flux estimator. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, (6), 27–32.



Electrotechnical complexes and Systems