Field programmable gate array hardware in the loop validation of fuzzy direct torque control for induction machine drive




fuzzy control, field programmable gate array, Xilinx system generator, direct torque control, power system


Introduction. Currently, the direct torque control is very popular in industry and is of great interest to scientists in the variable speed drive of asynchronous machines. This technique provides decoupling between torque control and flux without the need to use pulse width modulation or coordinate transformation. Nevertheless, this command presents two major importunities: the switching frequency is highly variable on the one hand, and on the other hand, the amplitude of the torque and stator flux ripples remain poorly controlled throughout the considered operating speed range. The novelty of this article proposes improvements in performance of direct torque control of asynchronous machines by development of a fuzzy direct torque control algorithm. This latter makes it possible to provide solutions to the major problems of this control technique, namely: torque ripples, flux ripples, and failure to control switching frequency. Purpose. The emergence of this method has given rise to various works whose objective is to show its performance, or to provide solutions to its limitations. Indeed, this work consists in validation of a fuzzy direct torque control architecture implemented on the ML402 development kit (based on the Xilinx Virtex-4 type field programmable gate array circuit), through hardware description language (VHDL) and Xilinx generator system. The obtained results showed the robustness of the control and sensorless in front of load and parameters variation of induction motor control. The research directions of the model were determined for the subsequent implementation of results with simulation samples.

Author Biographies

A. Aib, University of M’Sila

Doctor of Electrotechnical, Research Laboratory on the Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technology

D. E. Khodja, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Doctor of Electrotechnical, Professor, Signals & Systems Lab

S. Chakroune, University of M’Sila

Doctor of Electrotechnical, Professor, Research Laboratory on the Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technology


Takahashi I., Ohmori Y. High-performance direct torque control of an induction motor. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 1989, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 257-264. doi:

Moussaoui L. Performance enhancement of direct torque control induction motor drive using space vector modulation strategy. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2022, no. 1, pp. 29-37. doi:

Gdaim S., Mtibaa A., Mimouni M.F. Direct Torque Control of Induction Machine based on Intelligent Techniques. International Journal of Computer Applications, 2010, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 29-35. doi:

Malyar V.S., Hamola O.Y., Maday V.S., Vasylchyshyn I.I. Mathematical modelling of starting modes of induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, 2021, no. 2, pp. 9-15. doi:

Djamila C., Yahia M. Direct Torque Control Strategies of Induction Machine: Comparative Studies. In Direct Torque Control Strategies of Electrical Machines. IntechOpen. 2021. doi:

Gdaim S., Mtibaa A., Mimouni M.F. Design and Experimental Implementation of DTC of an Induction Machine Based on Fuzzy Logic Control on FPGA. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 2015, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 644-655. doi:

Eddine Khodja D., Simard S., Beguenan R. Implementation of optimized approximate sigmoid function on FPGA circuit to use in ANN for control and monitoring. Control Engineering and Applied Informatics, 2015, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 64-72.

Da Costa C., Santin C.O. FPGA design approach of digital control of three-phase induction motor. 2017 Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (COBEP), 2017, pp. 1-6. doi:

Monmasson E., Cirstea M.N. FPGA Design Methodology for Industrial Control Systems – A Review. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2007, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1824-1842. doi:

Toh C.L., Idris N.R.N., Yatim A.H.M., Muhamad N.D., Elbuluk M. Implementation of a New Torque and Flux Controllers for Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction Machine Utilizing Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). IEEE 36th Conference on Power Electronics Specialists, 2005, pp. 1594-1599. doi:

Lis J., Kowalski C.T., Orlowska-Kowalska T. Sensorless DTC control of the induction motor using FPGA. 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2008, pp. 1914-1919. doi:

Sutikno T., Idris N.R.N., Jidin A.Z., Daud M.Z. FPGA based high precision torque and flux estimator of direct torque control drives. 2011 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Colloquium (IAPEC), 2011, pp. 122-127. doi:

Monmasson E., Idkhajine L., Cirstea M.N., Bahri I., Tisan A., Naouar M.W. FPGAs in Industrial Control Applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2011, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 224-243. doi:

Aib A. FPGA Hardware in the Loop Validation of Torque and Flux Estimators for Direct Torque Control (DTC) of an Induction Motor (IM). International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems, 2021, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 583-594. doi:

Boukadida S., Gdaim S., Mtibaa A. Hardware Implementation of FTC of Induction Machine on FPGA. Electronics ETF, 2017, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 76-84. doi:

Zare M.A., Kavasseri R.G., Ababei C. FPGA-based design and implementation of direct torque control for induction machines. 2014 International Conference on ReConFigurable Computing and FPGAs (ReConFig14), 2014, pp. 1-6. doi:

Lee G.S., Lee D.H., Yoon T.W., Lee K.B., Song J.H., Choy I. Speed and flux estimation for an induction motor using a parameter estimation technique. International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, 2005, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 79-86.

Sandre-Hernandez O., Rangel-Magdaleno J., Morales-Caporal R., Bonilla-Huerta E. HIL simulation of the DTC for a three-level inverter fed a PMSM with neutral-point balancing control based on FPGA. Electrical Engineering, 2018, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 1441-1454. doi:

Lotfi E., Elharoussi M., Abdelmounim E. VHDL design and FPGA implementation of direct torque control for induction machines. Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 2021, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1220-1231. doi:




How to Cite

Aib, A., Khodja, D. E., & Chakroune, S. (2023). Field programmable gate array hardware in the loop validation of fuzzy direct torque control for induction machine drive. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, (3), 28–35.



Electrotechnical complexes and Systems