Application of whale algorithm optimizer for unified power flow controller optimization with consideration of renewable energy sources uncertainty




unified power flow controller, optimal location, whale optimization algorithm, renewable energy sources, intermittency


Purpose. In this paper an allocation methodology of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) controllers, more specifically, the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is proposed. As the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) into the conventional electric grid increases, its effect on this location must be investigated. Research studies have shown that the uncertainty of RESs in power generation influences the reactive power of a power system network and consequently its overall transmission losses. The novelty of the proposed work consists in the improvement of voltage profile and the minimization of active power loss by considering renewable energy sources intermittency in the network via optimal location of UPFC device. The allocation strategy associates the steady-state analysis of the electrical network, with the location and adjustment of controller parameters using the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) technique. Methodology. In order to determine the location of UPFC, approaches are proposed based on identification of a line which is the most sensitive and effective with respect to voltage security enhancement, congestion alleviation as well as direct optimization approach. The optimum location of UPFC in the power system is discussed in this paper using line loading index, line stability index and optimization method. The objective function is solved using the WOA algorithm and its performance is evaluated by comparison with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Results. The effectiveness of the proposed allocation methodology is verified through the analysis of simulations performed on standard IEEE 30 bus test system considering different load conditions. The obtained results demonstrate that feasible and effective solutions are obtained using the proposed approach and can be used to overcome the optimum location issue. Additionally, the results show that when UPFC device is strategically positioned in the electrical network and uncertainty of RES is considered, there is a significant influence on the overall transmission loss and voltage profile enhancements of the network.

Author Biographies

A. Laifa, University of August 20, 1955

Doctor of Science, Department of Electrical Engineering

B. Ayachi, University of August 20, 1955

Doctor of Science, Department of Electrical Engineering


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Available at: (Accessed 3 May 2022).




How to Cite

Laifa, A., & Ayachi, B. (2023). Application of whale algorithm optimizer for unified power flow controller optimization with consideration of renewable energy sources uncertainty. Electrical Engineering & Electromechanics, (2), 69–78.



Power Stations, Grids and Systems