AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 46: THERMONUCLEAR POWER ENGINEERING. THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS AND POWER PLANTS: RETROSPECTIVE VIEW OF INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR SYNTHESIS, THEIR STATE-OF-THE-
Keywords:thermonuclear synthesis and reactor, thermonuclear power engineering, tokamak, stellarator, laser-impulse reactor, safety of thermonuclear reactor, thermonuclear power plant of the future
AbstractPurpose. Preparation of brief scientific and technical review about the retrospective view of investigations, state-of-the art, problems and possible prospects of development in the world of thermonuclear power engineering. Methodology. Known scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information of world level in area of the controlled thermonuclear synthesis (CTS) and thermonuclear power engineering, resulted in scientific monographs, journals and internet reports. Results. A brief analytical scientific and technical review is resulted about the retrospective view of researches, modern state, basic achievements, existent problems and possible prospects of development of thermonuclear power engineering in the leading countries of the world. Nuclear physical bases of process of flowing of CTS are resulted in mixture of light nuclei. Information is presented about the results of the initial and modern stages of world researches in area of CTS. Basic constructions and technical descriptions of thermonuclear reactors (TNR), utilizing the magnetic and inertia withholding of hot plasma are described. World progress is analyzed in area of development, creation and research of experimental TNR, being based on the systems of withholding of hot plasma in toroidal magnetic «traps» (options: tokamaks and stellarators) and inertia systems of laser-impulse technology of microscopic explosions of targets-capsules of thermonuclear fuel. Information is resulted about the basic types of thermonuclear fuel, which can be used in the duty cycles of TNR, and safety of TNR. The basic systems and devices of the largest in the world of experimental TNR-tokamak of ITER type (with a reference cost of EUR 15 billion and term of putting into an experimental operation in 2025), erected now within the framework of international project in France are described. Basic problems are indicated in area of CTS in experimental TNR and creations in the future of the thermonuclear power plants (TNPP). The important role of TNPP and thermonuclear power engineering is marked on the whole in providing of humanity in a long-term prospect electric energy. Originality. Certain systematization of the scientific and technical materials touching the problem of CTS of light nuclei and practical application in the peaceful aims of thermonuclear energy known from the sources opened in outer informative space is executed. It is shown on the basis of approach of the systems, that, in spite of row of existent technical problems in area of creation of industrial TNR and practical commercial capture thermonuclear energy, thermonuclear power engineering has an important value for providing in remote future electric energy of all of humanity. Practical value. Scientific popularization and deepening for the students of technical universities, engineering, technical and scientific workers, working in the power sector of economy, scientific and technical knowledge in area of CTS and thermonuclear power engineering, extending their scientific range of interests and further development of scientific and technical progress in society.
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