AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 42: ELECTRONICS: RETROSPECTIVE VIEW, SUCCESSES AND PROSPECTS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT
Keywords:vacuum electronics, radio lamp, solid state microelectronics, transistor, integrated circuit, microprocessor, vacuum integrated circuit, vacuum microelectronics and nanoelectronics, trends and prospects of electronics development
AbstractPurpose. Preparation of brief scientific and technical review about sources, retrospective view, basic stages, achievements, problems, trends and prospects of development of world electronics for period of 20th-21st centuries. Methodology. Known scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information of world level in area of a vacuum electronics, semiconductor electronics, vacuum microelectronics and nanoelectronics, and also optical electronics. Results. A brief analytical scientific and technical review is resulted about the primary and present states, achievements, trends and prospects of development of electronics in the developed countries of the world. From positions of approach of the systems advantages and lacks of semiconductor microelectronics are described as compared to a vacuum electronics. Considerable progress is marked in development of semiconductor element base (microtransistors, microprocessors, microcontrollers and other) for creation of different electronic devices and computing engineering. Information, touching the determining deposit of electronic companies of the «Silicon Valley» in the USA in providing of technological breach in area of modern microelectronics, production of computers and their microprocessors, software and creation of devices of mobile communication development, is resulted. The basic problems of space microelectronics are affected. The possible ways of further development are indicated in the world of electronics, including vacuum microelectronics and nanoelectronics, and also optical electronics. The special attention is turned for urgent development of high-efficiency protective facilities specialists against cyber attacks hackers on the computer systems. In a review an accent is done on the sharp necessity of acceptance the proper services of drastic measures for a fight with cyber terrorism. Originality. Systematization of the scientific and technical materials touching world history of development and creation of modern element base of a vacuum electronics and semiconductor microelectronics known from the sources opened in outer informative space is executed. Possible new perspective directions of development in the modern world of microelectronics are formulated. Practical value. Popularization and deepening for students, engineer and technical| specialists and research workers of front-rank scientific and technical knowledge in the topical area of development, creation and application in the modern technique of the different setting of high-computer-integrated electronic devices, extending their scientific range of interests and further development of scientific and technical progress in society.
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